As you can imagine, Germany does not take its history lightly. That isn't to say they want to forget it ever happened -- quite the opposite. But Nazis, and everything that comes with them, are something of a sensitive subject. Though movies like Iron Sky made it to theaters relatively unscathed (despite featuring swastikas worn by Nazis living on the moon), games don't have the same protections in the country. Meaning that any use of the swastika in a video game is strictly verboten. So if you're the developers of something like 10 Second Ninja (seen above) and your main character is fighting Nazi robots in levels full of swastikas, you'll have to make some compromises.
Is it fair that video games have to censor themselves while Indiana Jones remains uncut? Well, not really. But as we'll see throughout the next few entries, the German government doesn't recognize games as art, and thus doesn't offer it the same protections as other mediums. But publishers still want to put their games out in Germany, especially since it's the largest market in Europe, ahead of even the UK.
Not publishing your game in Germany is leaving a lot of money on the table, so even games with Nazis baked into their DNA -- like 2014's Wolfenstein: The New Order -- have been changed to accomodate the local censors.
The Wolfenstein series has always, always been about shooting Nazi shitbags, so you can imagine that making The New Order fit for German shelves was a tall order. Every single reference to Nazis were completely removed from the game. The bad guys were now simply called "The Regime," and all swastikas were erased throughout the campaign, often replaced with the Wolfenstein logo. Eurogamer put together a great comparison roundup if you'd like to see more examples like the one above.
Besides some key visuals and dialogue being altered, TNO largely remained the same story-wise; even someone unfamiliar with the Wolfenstein series would find it patently obvious who "The Regime" were supposed to represent. It's sort of like pixelating someone's hand when they flip the bird to the camera -- everyone knows what's really going on, but it's covered up because that's just the way things are.
South Park is no stranger to censorship, so it should be no surprise that The Stick of Truth dealt with its Nazi zombies just like the show dealt with images of Muhammad: Using a series of strategically-placed black boxes.
In a way, you can kind of appreciate the transparency of this censorship. The haphazard black bars clearly communicate "Someone made us cover this stuff up, but everything else is presented as-is." At the same time, it highlights how simultaneously strict and lax German censor rules are. Characters that are obviously Nazis can appear in video games -- so long as they aren't wearing Nazi-specific symbols.
Remember how we mentioned that Indiana Jones movies were ok to reference Nazis? Well, the same doesn't go for Indiana Jones video games.
Whereas Wolfenstein went to impressive lengths to localize their title for German players, the Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade adventure game is something of a different story. All the swastikas in the adaptation are indeed removed, but in the most lazy, slipshod way possible. It looks like someone colored in the swatikas with MS Paint. The result is a bunch of flags with misshapen squares on them.
This moment is based on a very memorable scene from the movie, so they couldn't very well leave it out. But it's especially strange to see such obviously censored swastikas behind what is unambiguously Adolf Hitler giving the Nazi salute.
Hell, instead of allowing Hitler to autograph Henry Jones' diary, you can punch that dickmunch right in the face.
Note that the only real difference between the US and German versions of the scene is the swastika to the far right. They didn't even bother coloring in the flag dead-center, because it's already being obscured by a wall.
It's odd that The Last Crusade got away with depicting Hitler at all, because that seems to be a big no-no when it comes to modern German ports.
Like a lot of early entries in the series, Call of Duty: Finest Hour takes place during World War II. So it would only make sense for Nazi propaganda posters to be plastered all over Germany and the rest of Europe. You'd think that the historical nature of the game might preclude it from censorship, especially in a country in which WWII documentaries air uncensored on a regular basis. But nah, Adolf's shitty mug is replaced by what appears to be a foldout pin-up straight out of Tiger Beat: Hitler Youth Edition.
Though Hitler's face has been eradicated from contemporary games in Germany, his name still lives on. Hearts of Iron 4 is a strategy game that, like the aforementioned Call of Duty title, takes place during World War II. So it seems like it'd be pretty impossible to fight against Hitler without representing him in the game -- and in a way, the furher does appear. Sort of.
For most of the Western release, Hitler's is unaltered, presumably because everyone wants the pleasure of knocking that shitty mustache off that cretin's face. But in Germany, while Hitler remains a specifically-named character in the game, his face is cloaked in shadow. The near-silhouette kind of makes it look like Hitler is an unlockable character whose portrait will light up after you get a special achievement. Either that, or it's an extra tough second version of the dictator. Seeing this just sort of makes me want to test my mettle against Shadow Hitler.
Apparently you don't even have to go as far as shrouding Hitler in darkness to get by German video game rules -- as evidenced by Wolfenstein II: The New Colossus, all you have to do is shave off his mustache.
It's not just direct references to Hitler and the Nazis that have gotten the boot -- the policy even extends to logos that resemble the offending symbols.
The skateboard brand Mystery was featured prominently in EA's Skate 2, except in the case of Germany, in which the company's merch was excised completely. It has to do with Mystery's trademark logo, which does bear resemblance to the the Nazi SS lightning bolts. Believe it or not, this is the same problem that the band KISS ran into; their logo is different on German album releases, presumably because their S is uncomfortably close to that of the Schutzstaffel. Thing is, in the case of Skate 2, any and all Mystery products were removed from the game -- even products that didn't bear the logo. Worse yet, this removal made the game incompatible with the version the rest of the world got, so German players hopping online could only play with other similarly stiffed German players.
We'll get into censored game features a little bit later, but right now we have to get to one of the oddest trends in video game censorship.
The majority of games are violent in one way or another. It's just a matter of degrees. Flinging a tiny bird at a grinning pig and making it explode into dust is still technically a form of violence, even if it's not as extreme as Sub-Zero ripping out Scorpion's spine. Violence is built into game design, in part because killing an enemy and erasing it from existence one of the easiest ways for a player to make a real interaction with a virtual world.
Germany is pretty strict about violence in gaming, but since so many games heavily rely on it, this has led to developers using some loopholes. As it turns out, Germany is not okay with humans exploding into bloody body parts, but is totally fine with robots meeting the very same fate. Just look at the German version of Team Fortress 2.
In case it didn't come across in the GIFs, all the characters in German TF2 are robots. Meaning that when you shoot them, sparks fly out instead of bodily fluids. When characters explode, instead of blood and body parts, there's oil and gears and sometimes toy hamburgers.
The best place to see this in action is probably the Meet the Soldier" animated short. Here you can see they used the MS Paint fill bucket to change the color of the red blood to an oily black, and inserted a large coil where a spinal cord should be.
While the goofy German version does fit the tone of the series, it's a shame that Valve felt like they had to do this. The original decapitated head already looks like something out of The Flintstones, but apparently it wasn't cartoonish enough.
Team Fortress 2 didn't invent the human-robot transformation, though. The trend dates way back to the 90s. Not even the Nintendo 64 was safe.
Though Turok: Dinosaur Hunter is primarily known for... hunting dinosaurs, there were plenty of humanoid enemies in the first game. Of course, this changed from men with firearms to robots with laser swords for the German release. Honestly, this might be something of a benefit, since "shooting dinosaurs and robots with a minigun" sounds like the description to the best game ever made.
But if we want to talk actual contenders for the Game of the Forever pantheon, Half-Life 1 also employed robots to replace human enemies.
As if that wasn't lame enough, these "robot grunts" also replaced every single character class in Team Fortress 1. I'm not saying that every game must have killable humans in it, but it's always obvious when a game was designed around one thing only to be supplanted by something else.
So far the games we've covered are pretty tame by today's standards, but Soldier of Fortune II's ultraviolence retains its ultra prefix to this day.
It looks a little bit sillier now than it did in 2002, but SoF II still allows players to mutilate, dismember and otherwise horribly disfigure enemies with non-stop gunfire. It was pretty controversial stateside, which didn't bode well for getting past the German censors.
As you might have guessed, developer Raven Software got around this by making everyone a robot.
Unlike everything else we've mentioned so far, Soldier of Fortune II is at least somewhat grounded in the real world. Take away the fact that everyone seems to be a highly-pressurized sack of cherry Jell-O covered in skin, and it could almost resemble the real world. SoFII isn't a sci-fi game at heart, so where are the robots coming from?
To justify these automatons, Raven Software created a new universe for Soldier of Fortune II. The German version of the game takes place in an alternate dimension where androids have taken over the world. Seriously. When we said that everyone is a robot in SoFII, that means enemies, NPCs, and even the player's protagonist.
Thing is, the game is otherwise mostly the same. As the intro explains, these androids wiped out their human masters in order to live out their days having families and working shitty jobs... just like their human masters. It might be poignant if it didn't feel like Poochie was going to be summoned back to his home planet at any moment.
Soldier of Fortune II wasn't the only game to robotomize its entire in-game population. The biggest (and most hilarious) offender might be Command and Conquer: Generals.
Since the C&C games are traditionally real-time strategy games played from the top-down perspective, making every character in the game a robot doesn't have a huge effect -- at first. Sure, the soldiers make crinkly aluminium can sounds when you run over them with a tank, but what's extra special here are the titular Generals. The default release of the game features actual portraits of real people that head up one of three different playable factions. But since everyone is a robot in the German edition of Generals, that means each human represented in the game was subject to an awesomely terrible transformation.
Above you can see General Granger was corrupted by the Borg and went on to steal Geordi's visor. The other leaders in the game didn't fare better.
On-the-ground troops also got artificial flavors as well, but there's one especially ridiculous case that might actually be an overall improvement. See, the selectable factions controlled by the pictured Generals include the USA, China and something called the Global Liberation Army -- the latter of which was just a fancy way of saying "The Most Stereotypical Terrorists Imaginable." Even in 2003, the guys behind 24 would be a little concerned about the depiction of Middle-Eastern people.
Case in point: One of the GLA units is a suicide bomber. Straight-up. It's just a dude with a vest and some dynamite, seen yelling in his portrait. The German release took their usual robot assimilation a bit further in this case, replacing the suicide bomber (the unit name is literally "Terrorist") with a bomb on wheels.
Every once in a while, silly censorship can be a force for good. But as we'll find out, it can also be a complete ripoff.
So far, the German censorship we've gone over has been mostly cosmetic. Painting a square over a swastika and turning humans into robots is simultaneously nonsensical and condescending, but at least it usually doesn't actually affect the gameplay. Unfortunately, the playability of some games like Saints Row: The Third are directly affected by these hyperstrict rules.
Using people as human shields isn't the nicest thing you can do in a video game, but it's arguably an effective option for those who want to use it in open world games. The idea being that you can grab anyone off the street and make them your own fleshy sandbag to hide from enemy fire. In the German version of the game, this ability is restricted only to other gang members; you can't make human shields out of civilians or cops. This doesn't make the game unbeatable, but it does reduce the amount of options you have compared to other versions of the exact same game around the world.
A movelist being altered is one thing, but excising an entire game mode is another.
Call of Duty: World at War featured three basic modes that have since become a staple of the series. In addition to the standard campaign and the endlessly popular multiplayer, WaW introduced the Zombies mode. And since the game took place during World War II, these members of the evil undead were, predictably, wearing swastikas on their shoulders. But instead of removing the Nazi from the Nazi Zombies, the German version of the game got rid of the mode altogether. A huge selling point of the game, filled with hours of content, was just gone.
So why didn't they just remove all the emblems and insignias and change the name of the mode to Racist Asshole Zombies? Well, it might be the same reason why Capcom removed the beloved Mercenaries mode for German audiences.
I couldn't find any official word as to just why Mercenaries mode (along with Assignment Ada) are present in every iteration of RE4 except the one that came out in Germany, but there's a persistent theory out there. In general, German censors aren't terribly fond of ascribing point values to kills -- which is why you Germans didn't see that familiar "+10" on the screen when you kill someone during a multiplayer game of World at War, for instance. Since Mercenaries and Assignment Ada don't have actual narrative tied to them, the censors see it as more of a meaningless gore playground that only exists to allow psychopaths to live out their killing spree fantasies.
This anti-rampage stance lines up with the German Grand Theft Auto III, which saw the score attack "Rampage Mode" deleted from the game. The power-ups simply aren't present in the censored version.
Though modes cut from the game are quantifiable proof that German players are getting "less game" than the rest of the world, there's still something to be said for visual changes that water down creative vision. In this case, that vision is usually a video game soaked in blood.
The US and Europe have different ways of seeing things when it comes to media. The US gets all uppity if there's even a hint of a woman's nipple on the screen, but they're fine with someone getting shot in the head during prime time television. Similarly, gun violence is a bit less tolerated in European broadcasts, but they're than happy to feature topless women in a commercial for soup in a cup. That being said, the degree to which developers have had to tone down their games for Germany is pretty extreme compared to the same country's treatment of TV and movies.
Horror games get the brunt of it, as you might imagine. In the above scene from Silent Hill, Homecoming, a man with cuts all over his body starts spontaneously bleeding from every pore, drenching himself in his own bodily fluids. It's a gruesome scene to be sure, but it's made much less effective in the German cut, in which the man does bear the wounds but they remain scabbed and dry for the duration.
But there's a difference between toning down graphic images and pretending they never existed in the first place.
Now, the moment depicted in the GIF remains largely the same no matter where you play it. There's a little less blood spatter in the German version, but in general Silent Hill Homecoming focuses on the reaction of a man watching someone get literally ripped in half by Pyramid Head. It's a creative choice that makes you imagine what horrors this man could possibly be witnessing (and it probably saved the animators a bunch of time).
Then the cutscene ends, and the differences become more clear.
In the US, players are met with the bisected remains of the recently departed, but in Germany... the body is just gone. Vaporized. All that's left is the bloodstain on the ground and the confounded look on the player's face.
This phantom clean-up crew must be pretty busy, because they've used their magical squeegees to scrub tons of games, including Bulletstorm.
Now, Bulletstorm is one of the most heavily edited games on this list, probably because the gameplay revolves around battering your enemies around the map in such an exaggerated way that it sort of resembles pinball. While the gory moment-to-moment combos definitely suffer (I mean, when you kick a guy into a giant space cactus you expect to see some blood), the levels themselves have also been purified by the censors. Bodies and blood stains aren't exactly the most original forms of environmental storytelling in games, but taking that away removes the character from a game that builds its identity on cartoonish bloodshed.
The way that violence is muted varies from game to game. Take Grand Theft Auto III, for instance.
In both GIFs, you can see the player mow down an innocent civilian -- a heinous act that pretty much anyone who plays GTA III has at least tried. For the Western release, on the left, comical squibs spurt out after every gunshot wound. But the German GTA III keeps things below PG-13, as the civilian dies a bloodless death. The NPC also drops no money as it dies the German version, again a specific decision to limit incentives to "kill for points."
The God of War series has always been pretty uncompromising when it comes to graphic violence, but the German version has a uniquely seamless way of avoiding the offending content.
Pushing the camera up a couple feet is in some ways a cop-out, but like Silent Hill Homecomeing, it also makes you imagine something much worse than what American audiences saw.
Maybe that same effect could have been put to good use in the incinerator scene in Wolfenstein: The New Order. As it is, it's pretty awful.
Believe it or not, these are actually GIFs of the exact same scene. Upon awaking in an incinerator, BJ Blaskowitz takes the knife out of his gut and frees himself the corpses hugging his body. The German release includes this scene, but it's almost unrecognizable. There aren't any bodies in the incinerator with BJ, but you can still see his left arm stuck in that same corpse-moving animation. Though the uncut version adds tension with the fires turning on and off below, the German cut nixes the blaze altogether. The omissions taken together suck any drama out of the scene, and worse yet, make it hard to tell what's actually happening.
Even box art isn't safe from the censors.
The American box art for Valve's zombie shooter Left 4 Dead is bold in its silliness, but the censored version is comparitively something of a headscratcher. An undead hand showing the number four because it's missing a thumb is stupid in a fun way. The German box art, on the other hand, depicts an undead hand with a thumb folded over its palm, adding a bizarre amount of agency to the zombie who owns the appendage. It sort of ruins the joke, which odd because Germans are known worldwide for their freewheeling sense of humor.
To be fair, the re-thumbed box art was actually just a paper sleeve over a DVD case with the original box art. This probably has to do with Germany's issues with advertising games it deems inappropriate. Who exactly is deciding what gets censored and what doesn't, anyway? Well, we should probably get to that...
So why do developers go to such insane lengths to make their games for palatable for the German market? What's the worst that could happen? Well, they could be put on "the index," a list of media put together by a federal German agency. If a game doesn't abide by the ratings rules of the Voluntary Monitoring Organisation of Entertainment Software (otherwise known as USK), that game does not pass GO, does not collect $200 and does not receive its special qualifying certificate for sale in Germany.
Now, these "indexed" games aren't technically banned, but they are treated like pornography. This means that they can't be advertised whatsoever -- and that can sometimes mean it has to be shoved into a special "adult" section of a store, because Germany can consider box art as advertising. The government is so serious about this that it's technically illegal to publish a list of games on the index, because that itself is advertising the forbidden products. While it isn't against the law to play these games, not many retailers are willing to put something on their shelves that is virtually impossible to sell, so it's kind of a de-facto ban.
But something funny happened with 2006's Gears of War, one of the goriest franchises of the last decade.
As you could probably guess, the USK refused to certify a video game in which you turn your enemies into ground beef with your chainsaw gun. But instead of resubmitting the game or making changes, Microsoft just ditched the German release entirely. Gears of War wasn't forbidden because there was nothing to forbid. But because death will find a way, the German market's demand drove a ton of copies into the country via imports. This was only legal because Gears of War wasn't on the index. The government of course stepped in and indexed the game voluntarily, and because of this incident, any future games that aren't certified are automatically indexed as well.
Games held hostage by the index include Sega's Madworld, House of the Dead: Overkill and Aliens vs. Predator, along with notorious titles like Postal 2, Carmageddon and Manhunt. Not all of these games are great, but they're also not usually considered porn outside of Germany.
There is some hope, however. After 10 years, publishers are allowed to appeal the index ruling. This has resulted in games like Doom and Quake actually earning certification. But it's not like Doom animators reconfigured the way an imp crumbles to the floor in a bloody heap when you blow them away with your shotgun. The fact of the matter is that these games didn't change over the years -- we did. Teenagers and young adults who grew up in the early days of first-person shooters are now lawmakers, looking back in disbelief that anyone ever thought this rough mass of pixels could really warp a child into a unrepentant sociopath.
Maybe German censors will someday realign with the rest of the world, or even the rest of Europe. But with the way the world is going, they'll probably to cling to blaming video games for a while longer. It's probably easier than facing the fact that real-life humans are capable of terrible acts without visual aids. Until then, I guess a few more robots here and there isn't too bad.